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Tyr-Ziu Saxnot
08-19-2012, 11:24 AM
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin

Born (1706-01-17)January 17, 1706
Boston, Massachusetts Bay
Died April 17, 1790(1790-04-17) (aged 84)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Nationality American
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Deborah Read
Children William Franklin
Francis Folger Franklin
Sarah Franklin Bache
Profession Scientist
Writer
Politician
Signature

Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705[1]] April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass 'armonica'.[2] He formed both the first public lending library in America and the first fire department in Pennsylvania.[3]

Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity; as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies, then as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation.[4] Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical and democratic values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment. In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat."[5] To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."[6]

Franklin, always proud of his working class roots, became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies.[7] He was also partners with William Goddard and Joseph Galloway the three of whom published the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper that was known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of the British monarchy in the American colonies.[8] He became wealthy publishing Poor Richard's Almanack and The Pennsylvania Gazette. Franklin gained international renown as a scientist for his famous experiments in electricity and for his many inventions, especially the lightning rod. He played a major role in establishing the University of Pennsylvania and was elected the first president of the American Philosophical Society. Franklin became a national hero in America when he spearheaded the effort to have Parliament repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. For many years he was the British postmaster for the colonies, which enabled him to set up the first national communications network. He was active in community affairs, colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania. Toward the end of his life, he freed his slaves and became one of the most prominent abolitionists.

His colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, and status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored on coinage and money; warships; the names of many towns, counties, educational institutions, namesakes, and companies; and more than two centuries after his death, countless cultural references.
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United States has it's geniuses too. First offering.^^^^ -Tyr

Tyr-Ziu Saxnot
08-19-2012, 11:54 AM
From the same era and an even greater statesman.--Tyr


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson

Celebrate Wikipedia Loves Libraries at your institution in October/November.
Thomas JeffersonFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
This article is about the United States president. For other uses, see Thomas Jefferson (disambiguation).
Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1801 March 4, 1809
Vice President Aaron Burr
George Clinton
Preceded by John Adams
Succeeded by James Madison
2nd Vice President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1797 March 4, 1801
President John Adams
Preceded by John Adams
Succeeded by Aaron Burr
1st United States Secretary of State
In office
March 22, 1790 December 31, 1793
President George Washington
Preceded by John Jay (Acting)
Succeeded by Edmund Randolph
United States Minister to France
In office
May 17, 1785 September 26, 1789
Appointed by Congress of the Confederation
Preceded by Benjamin Franklin
Succeeded by William Short
Delegate to the
Congress of the Confederation
from Virginia
In office
November 3, 1783 May 7, 1784
Preceded by James Madison
Succeeded by Richard Henry Lee
2nd Governor of Virginia
In office
June 1, 1779 June 3, 1781
Preceded by Patrick Henry
Succeeded by William Fleming
Delegate to the
Second Continental Congress
from Virginia
In office
June 20, 1775 September 26, 1776
Preceded by George Washington
Succeeded by John Harvie
Personal details
Born (1743-04-13)April 13, 1743
Shadwell, Colony of Virginia
Died July 4, 1826(1826-07-04) (aged 83)
Charlottesville, Virginia
Political party Democratic-Republican
Spouse(s) Martha Wayles
Children Martha
Jane
Mary
Lucy
Lucy Elizabeth
Residence Monticello
Poplar Forest
Alma mater College of William and Mary
Profession Planter
Lawyer
College Administrator
Religion Deism (see article)
Signature

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 (April 2, 1743 O.S.) July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (18011809). At the beginning of the American Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia (17791781). Just after the war ended, from mid-1784 Jefferson served as a diplomat, stationed in Paris. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France. Jefferson was the first United States Secretary of State (17901793) serving under President George Washington. With his close friend James Madison he organized the Democratic-Republican Party, and subsequently resigned from Washington's cabinet. Elected Vice-President in 1796, when he came in second to John Adams of the Federalists, Jefferson opposed Adams and with Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts.

Elected president in what Jefferson called the Revolution of 1800, he oversaw the purchase of the vast Louisiana Territory from France (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (18041806) to explore the new west. His second term was beset with troubles at home, such as the failed treason trial of his former Vice President Aaron Burr, and escalating trouble with Britain. With Britain at war with Napoleon, and the United States trade and neutrality challenged at sea, he tried economic warfare against them both; however, his embargo laws did more damage to American trade and the economy. In 1807, President Jefferson signed into law a bill that banned the importation of slaves into the United States. Jefferson has often been rated in scholarly surveys as one of the greatest U.S. presidents, though since the late-twentieth century, he has been increasingly criticized by historians, often on the issue of slavery. [1][2]

A leader in the Enlightenment, Jefferson was a polymath who spoke five languages and was deeply interested in science, invention, architecture, religion and philosophy, interests that led him to the founding of the University of Virginia after his presidency. He designed his own large mansion on a 5,000 acre plantation near Charlottesville, Virginia, which he named Monticello. While not a notable orator, Jefferson was an indefatigable letter writer and corresponded with many influential people in America and Europe.[3]

Jefferson owned hundreds of slaves. Yet, he was opposed to the ultimate continuation of the institution of slavery throughout his life and privately struggled with the dilemma of slavery and freedom and its compatibility with the ideals of the American Revolution. Historians are in disagreement with how much Jefferson was committed to the anti-slavery cause. After Martha Jefferson, his wife of eleven years, died in 1782, Jefferson remained a widower for the rest of his life; his marriage produced six children, with only two surviving to adulthood.
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