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    Default NASA patented a faster, cheaper route to the moon.

    Science
    NASA patented a faster, cheaper route to the moon. The first spacecraft to use it could make Nobel Prize-winning discoveries about the universe.
    dmosher@businessinsider.com (Dave Mosher)
    Business InsiderSeptember 2, 2020, 7:28 AM CDT
    An illustration of the showing the Dark Ages Polarimeter Pathfinder or DAPPER spacecraft orbiting past the far side of the moon. <p class="copyright"><a href="https://www.colorado.edu/ness/dark-ages-polarimeter-pathfinder-dapper" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank" data-ylk="slk:University of Colorado Boulder; NASA" class="link rapid-noclick-resp">University of Colorado Boulder; NASA</a></p>
    An illustration of the showing the Dark Ages Polarimeter Pathfinder or DAPPER spacecraft orbiting past the far side of the moon.
    University of Colorado Boulder; NASA

    NASA patented an efficient new trajectory for sending smaller robotic spacecraft to the moon.

    The agency says it patents and licenses technologies to ensure they can achieve the "widest distribution" possible.

    The new trajectory may help a planned spacecraft, called the Dark Ages Polarimeter Pathfinder, reach lunar orbit and repeatedly fly through a "cone of silence" on the far side of the moon.

    That spacecraft could detect signals from the first stars, galaxies, black holes, and more, leading to big discoveries about how the universe evolved to its current form.

    Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories.

    The moon is both seductively close to Earth and cosmically far away: Decades after the end of the Space Race, it remains extraordinarily expensive and difficult to actually get there.

    The journey just got a bit easier, however, thanks to a freshly published NASA invention. The agency's patent doesn't cover a new piece of equipment or lines of code, but a trajectory — a route designed to save a lunar-bound mission time, fuel, and money and boost its scientific value.

    The US Patent and Trademark office granted and published NASA's patent for a series of orbital maneuvers on June 30, which Business Insider first learned about via a tweet by lawyer Jeff Steck.

    The technique isn't meant for large spaceships that carry astronauts or rovers, but for smaller, more tightly budgeted missions tasked with doing meaningful science. And the first spacecraft to take advantage of this new orbital path could deliver unprecedented discoveries from the far side of the moon.

    Called the Dark Ages Polarimeter Pathfinder, or DAPPER, the upcoming mission aims to record, for the first time, low-frequency radio waves emitted during the earliest epochs of the universe — when stars, black holes, and galaxies were just beginning to form.

    Charting a new budget-friendly path to the moon
    Diagrams showing a NASA-patented trajectory to the moon's orbit that balances both fuel consumption and speed for a small spacecraft. <p class="copyright"><a href="https://technology.nasa.gov/patent/TOP2-272" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank" data-ylk="slk:NASA" class="link rapid-noclick-resp">NASA</a></p>
    Diagrams showing a NASA-patented trajectory to the moon's orbit that balances both fuel consumption and speed for a small spacecraft.
    NASA

    When NASA launched three astronauts to the moon in 1968, it took the crew just a few days to get there. Such direct shots are expensive, though, requiring an enormous rocket to climb out of Earth's deep gravity well.

    There are far more efficient paths to the moon that can use smaller rockets — if you have time to spare, which robots do. By taking time to swing around the Earth, for instance, a spacecraft can steal some of the planet's momentum and slingshot out to the moon in a series of long orbits that cost it little to no fuel. Fuel remains necessary to correct orbits and maneuver through space, yet every ounce a spacecraft carries is mass that an engineer can't dedicate toward other components, including scientific instruments.

    The calculus is especially tricky for compact spacecraft like DAPPER, which would be about the size of a microwave, since there is (quite literally) less margin for error. Faced with the extra challenge of trying to fly DAPPER on a relatively thin $150 million budget from NASA's Explorers program, the team behind the mission concept realized they couldn't buy their own rocket ride all the way to lunar orbit.

    "This trajectory to the moon arose out of necessity, as these things often do," Jack Burns, an astrophysicist at the University of Colorado Boulder and leader of the DAPPER mission, told Business Insider. "We needed to keep the launch costs low and find a cheap way to get to the moon."

    They started with a flight they knew they could afford: one to geosynchronous or high-Earth orbit, which is a region about 22,236 miles away from Earth's equator (about one-tenth the way to the moon). It's a common destination for telecommunications and other satellites built to hover above one spot on the planet. DAPPER is small enough to piggyback on such missions.

    "If we could just get a launch into high-Earth orbit, geosynchronous orbit, then we could get the rest of the way there with only a modest tank of fuel," Burns said.

    After crunching the numbers, the team found a new low-energy trajectory to the moon, which their patent describes as a "method for transferring a spacecraft from geosynchronous transfer orbit to lunar orbit." It enlists the help of Earth and the moon's gravity to speed up and slow down DAPPER at the right moments, cutting down on the amount of propellant required. NASA says this new spin on the gravity assist keeps the flight time to about 2.5 months, whereas similar options can take six months.

    The trajectory also comes with numerous options to slip a spacecraft into an orbit of any angle around the moon, at practically any time. And it avoids a zone of radiation around Earth called the Van Allen belts, which can damage sensitive electronics.

    Why NASA is patenting and licensing ways to reach the moon
    A view of Earth from the moon captured by an Apollo 8 astronaut in 1968. NASA calls the famous image "Earthrise." <p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1249.html" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank" data-ylk="slk:NASA" class="link rapid-noclick-resp">NASA</a></p>
    A view of Earth from the moon captured by an Apollo 8 astronaut in 1968. NASA calls the famous image "Earthrise."
    NASA

    It may seem odd to patent lunar travel, but Burns said it is really no different than any other invention. "It's a creation that was the result of doing numerical modeling of planetary trajectories. So it is intellectual property."

    NASA patents and licenses inventions as a means of achieving the "widest distribution" of a technology, executive Dan Lockney told IPWatchdog in 2018. "Securing patents and licensing the technologies is a method NASA and other government agencies use to ensure access to government-funded innovations," Clare Skelly, a NASA spokesperson, told Business Insider in an email.

    The agency charges as much as $50,000 to license its patents, but typically asks for between $5,000 and $10,000, plus royalties. "It is through the upfront fees that NASA seeks to recover some of its investment in the patent filing and maintenance costs," the agency's licensing website states. In other words: Doing the grunt work of patenting, then charging a minimum for that work, is a formal and industry-compatible practice of disseminating the fruits of NASA's labors.

    Unofficially, NASA's scheme also keeps private companies and foreign nations from stockpiling important space technologies for exorbitant sums, and that helps foster American missions and international collaborations. (The agency does occasionally release patents into the public domain.)

    For his part, Burns said he doesn't believe NASA will "ever make any money" off the new trajectory patent, since it's often a matter of historical record-keeping.

    "It just is a marker that lays down that this was your intellectual property: You did this, and you were the creator of it, so that at least when people use it, they give credit," he said.

    Two Nobel Prizes may await in the lunar 'cone of silence'
    The purple region shows the lunar "cone of silence" for radio waves. <p class="copyright"><a href="https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2020.05.050" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank" data-ylk="slk:Neil Bassett et al.; Advances in Space Research" class="link rapid-noclick-resp">Neil Bassett et al.; Advances in Space Research</a></p>
    The purple region shows the lunar "cone of silence" for radio waves.
    Neil Bassett et al.; Advances in Space Research

    The goal of DAPPER is to study the universe from a "cone of silence" on the far side of the moon. In that solitary region, humanity's cacophony of wireless emissions can't interfere with antennas trying to pick up weak, low-frequency emissions from more than 13 billion years ago.

    "This is the only truly radio-quiet region in the inner solar system," Burns said. Humanity's pollution of radio waves — which leak out of almost every electronic device — can easily bend around corners and over horizons (so erecting barriers to block them is fruitless). "In order to get the same amount of quiet, you'd have to go out past the orbit of Jupiter, and go that far out in order for the noise just from Earth."

    Specifically, the mission seeks to detect radio emissions of the "neutral hydrogen" that dominated the very early universe. The cosmos produced the nuclei, or cores, of these first-ever atoms within a microsecond after the Big Bang; the event's dense, hot soup of energy had expanded and cooled off, permitting protons, neutrons, and electrons to form. About 380,000 years later, the soup of particles had cooled off further, allowing the positively charged protons to capture negatively charged electrons and become neutral hydrogen atoms.

    The phase is often called the "Dark Ages" because, in visible wavelengths of light, a human wouldn't have seen anything.

    "There's no stars. There's no galaxies. There's no other source of radiation. So how do you probe that part of the universe?" Burns said. "You use the one thing that you've got a lot of, which is neutral hydrogen."

    The problem is that those radio signals, which reach Earth in the 10-100 Mhz range, are not only scrambled by our planet's atmosphere, but match the emissions of countless power supplies, garage door openers, radio transmitters, space satellites, digital TV signals, and more.

    "The radio spectrum down at these frequencies? It's just absolutely filled with garbage," Burns said.

    Even in space, there's so much interference from humanity and the sun that Burns said the radio-equivalent temperature around Earth is "nearly a million degrees."

    By slipping behind the moon at a moment when the sun is blocked as well as Earth, DAPPER is expected to make the first clear recordings of neutral hydrogen signal. The spacecraft might also gather evidence of the first stars, and possibly the first black holes and galaxies that formed about 500 million years after the Big Bang, during an epoch called "Cosmic Dawn."

    And maybe — just maybe — the spacecraft could turn up the first direct detection of dark matter, which makes up about 80% of the mass in the universe but has yet to be identified.

    "Several people have told me there are at least two Nobel Prizes here. One is, you're detecting when the first stars and galaxies form and what they are. And number two, you're detecting dark matter," Burns said. (He pooh-poohed the idea of winning the prize himself.)

    The race to the early-universe radio emissions is on
    <p class="copyright">NASA</p>
    NASA

    Burns and others came up with the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) lunar mission about 10 years ago, which is why that mission, and not DAPPER, is described in the patent, which NASA filed in 2015. (The USPTO is a notoriously slow-moving federal organ.)

    Burns said NASA was excited about DARE — no one had ever done something like it before — but noted the agency was bound by rules that favored established science and hardware over newer approaches.

    "There is no history of low frequency experiments in space. So, on the one side, people are excited: 'Wow, you're opening up an entire new field of cosmology. This is great. This is fantastic. You need to do it,'" Burns said. "The other side is, 'Well you've never done it before, so it must be risky.' And so you get marked down for the risks."

    After years of being passed up, Burns and his colleagues decided to shrink the car-size spacecraft down to its current size, ditch novel hardware for well-proven "heritage" technologies, and try again.

    The gambit is working. Over the past few years, NASA has awarded DAPPER a few million dollars to prove out the mission's concept and mature its hardware design to a flight-ready state. When that work concludes within two years, DAPPER will have a good chance of winning $150 million from NASA's Explorers program — funding that'd get a spacecraft built and a rocket ride booked, should DAPPER have to purchase one from SpaceX, United Launch Alliance, Blue Origin, or some other provider.

    Burns isn't sure the mission will require the new patent to reach lunar orbit. In the years since his team came up with it, commercial rocket providers have started planning semi-regular launches to the moon. NASA is also working toward the launch of its massive Space Launch System rocket, which could easily carry DAPPER on a flight in the mid-2020s.

    "The possible ways to get there have widened considerably since this orbital trajectory was first designed," Burns said.

    But time is growing short. There is a growing push to land humans (and their noisy electronics) at the moon's poles, including an effort by China. That nation's space agency has also landed spacecraft on the lunar far side, where its robots are exploring the surface for the first time.

    "Given how simple we have made the DAPPER instrument now, a lot of people could build it. A lot of countries, even individual companies, could build this," Burns said. "Every so often I see a paper coming out of China with my figures in it, and they're talking about their own mission."

    Read the original article on Business Insider
    Going to be very, very important in regards to the future mining of Helium 3...--Tyr


    What is the value of Helium 3?
    Quantities as small as 20 ppb may seem too trivial to consider. But at a projected value of $40,000 per ounce, 220 pounds of helium-3 would be worth about $141 million. Because the concentration of helium-3 is extremely low, it would be necessary to process large amounts of rock and soil to isolate the material.Dec 7, 2004
    40k per ounce== $ 640,000 per pound,
    1,000 pounds shipped from the moon== $ 640 million dollars per shipment.
    A shuttle that could carry just 5,000 pound payload per round trip- = 3.2 billion dollars per shipment...
    Now think about why the obama was so hellbent on scraping our moon program and mothballing our shuttle.-Tyr

    ************************************************** ************
    Mining The Moon
    An Apollo astronaut argues that with its vast stores of nonpolluting nuclear fuel, our lunar neighbor holds the key to Earth's future. However, before we mine it, we'll need to determine who owns the moon?
    DEC 7, 2004

    A sample of soil from the rim of Camelot crater slid from my scoop into a Teflon bag to begin its trip to Earth with the crew of Apollo 17. Little did I know at the time, on Dec. 13, 1972, that sample 75501, along with samples from Apollo 11 and other missions, would provide the best reason to return to the moon in the 21st century. That realization would come 13 years later. In 1985, young engineers at the University of Wisconsin discovered that lunar soil contained significant quantities of a remarkable form of helium. Known as helium-3, it is a lightweight isotope of the familiar gas that fills birthday balloons.

    MORE FROM POPULAR MECHANICS
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    Small quantities of helium-3 previously discovered on Earth intrigued the scientific community. The unique atomic structure of helium-3 promised to make it possible to use it as fuel for nuclear fusion, the process that powers the sun, to generate vast amounts of electrical power without creating the troublesome radioactive byproducts produced in conventional nuclear reactors. Extracting helium-3 from the moon and returning it to Earth would, of course, be difficult, but the potential rewards would be staggering for those who embarked upon this venture. Helium-3 could help free the United States--and the world--from dependence on fossil fuels.

    That vision seemed impossibly distant during the decades in which manned space exploration languished. Yes, Americans and others made repeated trips into Earth orbit, but humanity seemed content to send only robots into the vastness beyond. That changed on Jan. 14, 2004, when President George W. Bush challenged NASA to "explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system."

    It was an electrifying call to action for those of us who share the vision of Americans leading humankind into deep space, continuing the ultimate migration that began 42 years ago when President John F. Kennedy first challenged NASA to land on the moon. We can do so again. If Bush's initiative is sustained by Congress and future presidents, American leadership can take us back to the moon, then to Mars and, ultimately, beyond.

    Although the president's announcement did not mention it explicitly, his message implied an important role for the private sector in leading human expansion into deep space. In the past, this type of public-private cooperation produced enormous dividends. Recognizing the distinctly American entrepreneurial spirit that drives pioneers, the President's Commission on Implementation of U.S. Space Exploration Policy subsequently recommended that NASA encourage private space-related initiatives. I believe in going a step further. I believe that if government efforts lag, private enterprise should take the lead in settling space. We need look only to our past to see how well this could work. In 1862, the federal government supported the building of the transcontinental railroad with land grants. By the end of the 19th century, the private sector came to dominate the infrastructure, introducing improvements in rail transport that laid the foundation for industrial development in the 20th century. In a similar fashion, a cooperative effort in learning how to mine the moon for helium-3 will create the technological infrastructure for our inevitable journeys to Mars and beyond.

    ************************************************** *****

    Obama Budget Scraps NASA Moon Plan for '21st Century Space Program'
    By Tariq Malik February 01, 2010




    NASA Chief: Budget Issues Delay Next Spaceship to 2015
    Orion approaches the International Space Station. Photo
    (Image: © Lockheed Martin Corp.)
    President Barack Obama's 2011 budget request has effectively shut down NASA?s five-year effort to return astronauts to the moon, leaving the U.S. space agency with lofty goals — but no firm deadlines — to once again send humans beyond Earth orbit.

    The budget request, released today, would scrap NASA's Constellation program to build the Orion spacecraft and Ares rockets for new manned moon missions — a $9 billion investment to date. The request calls for $19 billion in funding for NASA in 2011, a slight increase from the $18.3 billion it spent in 2010.

    The request does, however, pledge extra funding to extend the life of the International Space Station through at least 2020 and offers $6 billion over five years to support commercially built spaceships to launch NASA astronauts into space. The space agency's three remaining space shuttles are due to retire later this year.


    As I noted here at this site , after having cited it years earlier at my former political site- that the traitor obama immediately after being sworn in took USA out of the moon program. I noted the fact that Helium 3 had a future of multi trillion dollars, perhaps even hundreds of trillions in the energy needed in the future if fusion becomes a viable source. That was at was in a thread I presented years ago here.
    Now a group of 12 nations pursue this mining venture but USA scrapped its --moon- shuttle program and is not a part of that nations group venture.
    I asked why did the obama make that an immediate and top priority so quickly after beings worn in in his first term..
    Always he sought to weaken this nation...-Tyr
    Last edited by Tyr-Ziu Saxnot; 09-02-2020 at 10:44 AM.
    18 U.S. Code § 2381-Treason Whoever, owing allegiance to the United States, levies war against them or adheres to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort within the United States or elsewhere, is guilty of treason and shall suffer death, or shall be imprisoned not less than five years and fined under this title but not less than $10,000; and shall be incapable of holding any office under the United States.

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    Obama To NASA: I'm Committed To Manned Spaceflight
    April 15, 20104:25 PM ET
    FRANK JAMES

    In a visit to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, President Barack Obama defended his strategy for NASA's future which points the agency away from returning humans to the Moon and more towards eventually landing them on Mars.

    His way forward for NASA as the Space Shuttle program is scheduled to an end later this year would also keep the International Space Station in NASA's plans longer than the predecessor Bush Administration had planned.

    *********************************

    Note how early this scum lead USA away from having any part in mining the moon for Helium 3...
    Back then when I saw how quickly he ran to destroy the shuttle and our moon program I immediately started researching the why.!!
    Found out right away about Helium 3 and its future multi- trillions of dollars potential....
    Everything that scum did was to weak this nation... A fact....
    Go to Mars-what for?
    Trillions of dollars to go there and even if ever possible to set of colonies live there it would likely be another 200 years or more achieve-(if even ever possible).
    His action was that of scum that wanted to get USA away from its lead in the shuttle program and any possible mining of the moon for helium 3..
    --Tyr
    18 U.S. Code § 2381-Treason Whoever, owing allegiance to the United States, levies war against them or adheres to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort within the United States or elsewhere, is guilty of treason and shall suffer death, or shall be imprisoned not less than five years and fined under this title but not less than $10,000; and shall be incapable of holding any office under the United States.

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    I am finding that Google apparently has done away with articles on this group of nations hellbent on mining the moon for helium 3.
    Several articles that I found and read many years ago are now gone. hmmmmmm.
    Interesting if it means what I think it does..-Tyr
    18 U.S. Code § 2381-Treason Whoever, owing allegiance to the United States, levies war against them or adheres to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort within the United States or elsewhere, is guilty of treason and shall suffer death, or shall be imprisoned not less than five years and fined under this title but not less than $10,000; and shall be incapable of holding any office under the United States.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Tyr-Ziu Saxnot View Post
    I am finding that Google apparently has done away with articles on this group of nations hellbent on mining the moon for helium 3.
    Several articles that I found and read many years ago are now gone. hmmmmmm.
    Interesting if it means what I think it does..-Tyr
    My friend - https://duckduckgo.com/

    No more tracking your searches and history. Great alternative to google/yahoo for sure!
    How do you catch a unique rabbit? Unique up on him! (was my Mom's favorite joke )

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    Quote Originally Posted by jimnyc View Post
    My friend - https://duckduckgo.com/

    No more tracking your searches and history. Great alternative to google/yahoo for sure!
    Thanks Jim. I added it...

    This came up on my first use of it..

    https://duckduckgo.com/?q=group+of+n...237-1fk&ia=web

    All
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    Russia slams Trump's order to spur mining on the moon ...
    Search domain http://www.mining.com/russia-slams-t...oon-asteroids/
    Both China and India have also floated ideas about extracting Helium-3 from the Earth's natural satellite. Beijing has already landed on the moon twice in the 21st century, with more missions to ...
    Helium-3 Game

    Search domain http://www.newgrounds.com/portal/vie...al/view/506352
    The year is 2035 and the earth's natural energy resources have finally run out. This has sparked a global race to the moon's surface where they have discovered an abundance of a new source of energy that could save the planet - HELIUM-3. In each 10 minute multiplayer game you will be matched against 3 other miners in a real time strategy battle.
    Billionaire closer to mining moon for trillions of dollars ...

    Search domain http://www.cnbc.com/2017/01/31/billi...in-riches.html
    Jan 31, 2017The company's goal is twofold: 1) mine the moon for valuable resources, such as Helium-3, gold, platinum group metals, rare earth metals and water; and 2) help researchers develop human space ...
    Insights Daily Current Affairs, 29 June 2018 - INSIGHTSIAS

    Search domain http://www.insightsonindia.com/2018/...-29-june-2018/
    Even if ISRO finds helium-3 on the moon, there are obstacles that need to be addressed before it can be utilised. The space agency will have to figure out how it will mine and bring back the isotope to Earth. Building fusion power plants to convert this resource into energy is another issue that has to be looked at.
    This Company Plans to Mine the Moon, and It's Not Alone ...

    Search domain http://www.seeker.com/space/explorat...-its-not-alone
    One of the top proponents of lunar helium-3 is Harrison Schmitt, a geologist who walked on the moon during NASA's Apollo 17 mission and wrote a 2006 book advocating lunar helium-3 mining called ...
    Why on Earth Should We Be Mining the Moon? - Now. Powered ...

    Search domain now.northropgrumman.com/why-on-earth-should-we-be-mining-the-moon/https://now.northropgrumman.com/why-on-earth-should-we-be-mining-the-moon/
    Even rarer is helium-3, a gas that could be used as a clean and powerful fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. And then there's water. Thought to be trapped in lunar ice hidden deep in the shadow of polar craters, water could be turned into oxygen and rocket fuel. Robots, 3-D Printers and Optical Mining
    China says mining on the moon may help solve the world's ...

    Search domain http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencete...gy-crisis.html
    Helium 3 (He-3) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron. Its presence is rare on Earth, but it is sought after for use in nuclear fusion research.
    Forget Helium-3! Concentrate on lunar sites with water | ORF

    Search domain http://www.orfonline.org/research/42...es-with-water/
    According to recent number of articles, the bid to mine Helium-3 from the moon for energy production is being purported as a raison d'etre for lunar exploration. However, the technological challenges and economic viability of the processes involved makes this an unimaginative argument for space exploration.
    Is Moon Mining Economically Feasible? | Space

    Search domain http://www.space.com/28189-moon-mini...asibility.html
    But Crawford has a caveat about helium-3: Estimates for the abundance of the isotope are based on Apollo moon samples brought back from the low latitudes of the moon. "It's possible that helium-3 ...
    Shortages spur race for helium-3 alternatives | News ...

    Search domain http://www.chemistryworld.com/news/s...003620.article
    But with helium-3 reserves eroding rapidly, the question is whether these alternatives will arrive soon enough and whether they can help all helium-3 users. Helium-3 is made up ...
    18 U.S. Code § 2381-Treason Whoever, owing allegiance to the United States, levies war against them or adheres to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort within the United States or elsewhere, is guilty of treason and shall suffer death, or shall be imprisoned not less than five years and fined under this title but not less than $10,000; and shall be incapable of holding any office under the United States.

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    DOES HELIUM-3 EXIST ON THE MOON?
    In Space Force, scientists note that helium-3 is abundant on the Moon.
    They’re right.
    In 1986, scientists estimated that there are one million tons of helium-3 to be found in the lunar soil, which is called regolith.
    Estimated 2 billion pounds of helium 3, that is 32 billion ounces,
    at 40,000 dollars an ounce..
    That is 32,000,000,000 ounces x $40,000 = 1,280 trillion dollars worth.
    1,280, 000,000,000,000 dollars ..

    With the possibility that there is much more helium 3 than that-- and
    other extremely valuable mineral resources to tap.....
    Now take a guess why the obama moved this nation away from that as quickly as he could...
    Add in the values of other minerals to be mined and the number becomes even more mind boggling........... -Tyr
    Last edited by Tyr-Ziu Saxnot; 09-02-2020 at 10:09 PM.
    18 U.S. Code § 2381-Treason Whoever, owing allegiance to the United States, levies war against them or adheres to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort within the United States or elsewhere, is guilty of treason and shall suffer death, or shall be imprisoned not less than five years and fined under this title but not less than $10,000; and shall be incapable of holding any office under the United States.

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